Minggu, 03 Januari 2010

Chapter 1 : Introduction (Application Design Weather Monitoring Model base on Satellite Data (Draft))

by Idung Risidyanto

Weather is temporal state of surface atmosphere and it is one of natural phenomena that influences human activity and environment conditions.  Therefore, we could consider about weather as a natural system with the elements or factor that represent weather conditions.  If we called weather as system, we could build a model as simplification of the weather system.  A model of weather system would be used for understanding of weather phenomena, monitoring and predict the weather condition.
Increasing computer technology and geographical information technology support to build a model for weather prediction.  If we discuss about weather conditions, we should consider about temporal and spatial dimensions.  Therefore, a model of weather system will be done in the four dimensions.  They are three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension.  So, we can build a weather system model by integration numerical modeling and geographic information system that can be used for weather monitoring or prediction and the other hand, the model will be build is simulation model that able for learning or understanding of weather phenomena also predict their conditions in future.
Weather system is closely related to the problem of objective analysis of the fields of meteorology variables, and since the current amount of meteorological data is quite substantial, the processing of these data has proved to be one of primary problems of dynamic meteorology.  Therefore, a weather system model must be considered about atmospheric process, it can be build by mechanistic model and not in statistical model.  This model will be integration of spatial model to get the information based on location and time of weather condition.  In this research, weather system model will be build to monitor real-time weather conditions on the day.
Integration with numerical model (as mechanistic model) and spatial model will produce spatial weather information.  It should be managed in one system based computer and we called the information system of weather monitoring.  As a system, to provide the decide information about weather prediction, we should be consider about data input that will be used to run the model and how the data output which we want.  In this case, the data to be used for running the model are NOAA satellite data. 
NOAA is one of satellites that give fast information to monitoring and manage the natural resources or activities.  It use to detected forest fire by hot spot, cloud moving, vegetation index, so that so many department or person use it to they project.  NOAA satellite have been design as polar orbiting environmental satellites (POES), because that, much subject about environmental use it, as meteorology and climate, natural resources management, agriculture, oceanography, geophysics, fisheries and etc.  NOAA satellite data was used as model input because it has one-day temporal resolution and could cover all area on the earth surface.
Considering input, process and output of weather system model will be building; this research is integration of three courses.  There are modeling, geography information system and remote sensing.  Integration of three course was done by using computer programming in order to become a package application software that used to monitor weather conditions and easy to use.
The main objectives of the study is to develop an information system for weather conditions based on numerical weather model and geography information system that used for managing weather information for public users. In addition, this objectives could be describe as specific objectives, there are:
• Develop model design to simulate weather condition based on surface temperature data that was extracted from NOAA AVHRR Local Area Coverage satellite and digital elevation data  (DEM)
• Create algorithm and script of program to extract NOAA AVHRR Local Area Coverage satellite data so that it can be used automatically and reduced image processing software
• Translating model design of weather monitoring system into computer algorithm
• Building a package of application software for implementing model design so that it could be used to monitor weather condition daily.